What We Learned About Galaxies Today: They Rush From Each Other

Apparently, there’s a new map of the Universe that has shown how fast the cosmos is expanding. All the data that was collected by a telescope in Chile’s Atacama Desert agrees with the previous estimates of the age of the Universe, of its evolution and geometry. However, they don’t match with the measurements taken with regard to how fast galaxies are flying apart from each other. The new data suggests that the Universe is expanding at a significantly slower pace.

ACT – The Atacama Cosmology Telescope has given us an idea about the cosmic microwave background – or CMB, the afterglow of the Big Bang. They gathered data from 2013 to 2016.

CMB radiation is known to come from all over space, but that does not mean that it is uniform. Its variations show that different regions of the early Universe actually have different temperatures – with less than 0.03 kelvin in some places. In 20 years, cosmologists used these variations in order to calculate some of the essential features of the Universe’s structure and evolution, the density of the matter, and its age.

Astronomers also used the variations in order to predict the rate at which the Universe is expanding – they got a little help from the Hubble constant measure. The Planck telescope has mapped the entire CMB sky with the beginning of 2009 until 2013, and the data will really help us a lot. The data from ACT justify Planck’s findings, and it produces a similar value for the Hubble constant.

The results were not similar

However, these results do not match the direct measurements of the Hubble constant, which were made by using some different techniques. There’s a significant discrepancy, which is now known as the Hubble-constant tension.

The astronomers that are using the brightness of stars and supernova explosions – which are called standard candles – in order to calculate the expansion rate found out that galaxies actually get away from each other pretty fast – 10% more quickly than thought before.

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